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Written with verve and intensity (and a good bit of wordplay), this is the long-awaited study of Flaubert and the modern literary field that constitutes the definitive work on the sociology of art by one of the world’s leading social theorists. Drawing upon the history of literature and art from the mid-nineteenth century to the present, Bourdieu develops an original theory of art conceived as an autonomous value. He argues powerfully against those who refuse to acknowledge the interconnection between art and the structures of social relations within which it is produced and received. As Bourdieu shows, art’s new autonomy is one such structure, which complicates but does not eliminate the interconnection. The literary universe as we know it today took shape in the nineteenth century as a space set apart from the approved academies of the state. No one could any longer dictate what ought to be written or decree the canons of good taste. Recognition and consecration were produced in and through the struggle in which writers, critics, and publishers confronted one another.
Art and Scholasticism by Jacques Maritain
Chapter VI The Rules of Art
The whole formal element of art consists in the regulation which it imprints on matter. Moreover it is of the essence of art, according to the ancients, to have fixed rules, viae certae et determinatae. This expression "fixed rules" conjures up some bad memories: we think of the three unities, and of "Aristotle's rules." But it is from the Renaissance with its superstitious reverence for antiquity and its stuffed Aristotle, not from the Christian Aristotle of our Doctors, that the starched rules of the grammarians of the grand siècle derive. The fixed rules of which the Schoolmen spoke are not conventional imperatives imposed on art from without, but the ways of Operation peculiar to art itself, the ways of working reason, ways high and hidden. And every artist knows well that without this intellectual form ruling the matter, his art would be but sensual slush. Some explanations however seem to be necessary at this point.First, with regard to art in general, the mechanical or servile arts as well as the fine arts and the liberal arts, it is important to understand that the rules in question are nothing, in actual fact, if they are not in a vital and spiritual state, in a habitus or a virtue of the intellect, which is precisely the virtue of art.Through the habitus or virtue of art superelevating his mind from within, the artist is a ruler who uses rules according to his ends; it is as senseless to conceive of him as the slave of the rules as to consider the worker the slave of his tools. Properly speaking, he possesses them and is not possessed by them: he is not held by them, it is he who holds -- through them -- matter and the real; and sometimes, in those superior moments where the working of genius resembles in art the miracles of God in nature, he will act, not against the rules, but outside of and above them, in conformity with a higher rule and a more hidden order. Let us understand in this manner the words of Pascal: "True eloquence makes fun of eloquence, true morality makes fun of morality, to make fun of philosophy is to philosophize truly," to which the most tyrannical and the most radical of academy heads adds this savory gloss: "Unless you don't care a rap about painting, painting won't care a rap about you." There is, as I noted earlier, a fundamental incompatibility between habitus and egalitarianism. The modern world has a horror of habitus, whatever ones they may be, and one could write a very strange History of the Progressive Expulsion of Habitus by Modern Civilization. This history would go back quite far into the past. We would see -- "a fish always rots by the head first" -- theologians like Scotus, then Occam, and even Suarez, ill-treat, to begin with, the most aristocratic of these strange beings, namely the gifts of the Holy Spirit -- not to mention the infused moral virtues. Soon the theological virtues and sanctifying grace will be filed and planed away by Luther, then by the Cartesian theologians. Meanwhile, natural habitus have their turn; Descartes, with his passion for levelling, attacks even the genus generalissimum to which the wretches belong, and denies the real existence of qualities and accidents. The whole world at the time is agog with excitement over calculating machines; everybody dreams only of method. And Descartes conceives method as an infallible and easy means of bringing to the truth "those who have not studied" and society people. Leibniz finally invents a logic and a language whose most wonderful characteristic is that it dispenses from thinking. And then comes the taste, the charming curiosity, the spiritual acephaly of the Enlightenment. Thus method or rules, regarded as an ensemble of formulas and processes that work of themselves and serve the mind as orthopedic and mechanical armature, tend everywhere in the modern world to replace habitus, because method is for all whereas habitus are only for some. Now it cannot be admitted that access to the highest activities depend on a virtue that some possess and others do not; consequently beautiful things must be made easy. Chalepa ta kala. The ancients thought that truth is difficult, that beauty is difficult, and that the way is narrow; and that to conquer the difficulty and the loftiness of the object, it is absolutely necessary that an intrinsic force and elevation -- that is to say, a habitus -- be developed in the subject. The modern conception of method and rules would therefore have seemed to them a gross absurdity. According to their principles, rules are of the essence of art, but on condition that the habitus, a living rule, be formed; without it, rules are nothing. Plaster the perfect theoretical knowledge of all the rules of an art onto an energetic laureate who works fifteen hours a day but in whom the habitus is not sprouting, and you will never make an artist of him; he will always remain infinitely farther removed from the art than the child or the savage equipped with a simple natural gift: this said by way of excusing the too naive or too subtle adorers of Negro art. The problem is posed for the modern artist in an insane manner, as a choice between the senility of academic rules and the primitiveness of natural gift: with the latter, art does not yet exist, except in potentiality; with the former, it has ceased to exist at all. Art exists only in the living intellectuality of the habitus. In our day natural gift is lightly taken for art itself, especially if it is covered over with facile faking and a voluptuous medley of colors. However, natural gift is only a prerequisite condition for art, or again a rough outline (inchoatio naturalis) of the artistic habitus. This inborn disposition is clearly indispensable; but without cultivation and a discipline which the ancients held should be long and patient and honest, it will never develop into art properly speaking. Thus art, like love, proceeds from a spontaneous instinct, and it must be cultivated like friendship; for it is a virtue like friendship. Saint Thomas points out that the natural dispositions through which one individual differs from another have their root in the physical disposition of the body; they concern our sense faculties, in particular the imagination, the chief purveyor of art -- which thus appears as the gift par excellence by which the artist is born -- and which the poets gladly make their main faculty, because it is so intimately bound up with the activity of the creative intellect that it is difficult in the concrete to distinguish the one from the other. But the virtue of art involves an improvement of the mind; moreover, it imprints on the human being an incomparably deeper quality than do the natural dispositions. Besides, the manner in which education cultivates the natural dispositions may atrophy the spontaneous gift instead of developing the habitus, especially if this manner is material and rotten with recipes and clever devices -- or again if it is theoretical and speculative instead of being operative, for the practical intellect, on which the rules of the arts depend, proceeds by positing an effect in being, not by proving or demonstrating; and often those who best possess the rules of an art are the least capable of formulating them. From this point of view one must deplore the substitution (begun by Colbert, completed by the Revolution) of the academic teaching of the schools for corporate apprenticeship. By the very fact that art is a virtue of the practical intellect, the mode of teaching that by nature belongs to it is apprenticeship-education, the working-novitiate under a master and in the presence of the real, not lessons distributed by professors; and, to tell the truth, the very notion of a School of Fine Arts, especially in the sense in which the modern body politic understands this phrase, conceals as deep a misunderstanding of things as the notion, for instance, of an Advanced Course in Virtue. Hence the revolts of a Cézanne against the Academy and against the professors, revolts directed, in reality, chiefly against a barbarous conception of artistic education. The fact remains that art, being an intellectual habitus, presupposes necessarily and always a formation of the mind, which puts the artist in possession of fixed rules of operation. No doubt, in certain exceptional cases, the individual effort of the artist, of a Giotto, for example, or a Moussorgsky, can suffice by itself alone to procure this formation of the mind. And indeed, since what is most spiritual in art -- the synthetic intuition, the conception of the work-to-be-made -- depends on the via inventionis or the effort of discovery, which requires solitude and is not learned from others, it may even be said that the artist, as far as the fine point and the highest life of his art are concerned, forms and elevates himself single-handed. The closer one approaches this spiritual point of the art, the more the viae determinatae with which one will have to deal will be adapted and personal to the artist, and designed to disclose themselves to one man only. In this respect it may be that in our time, when we are experiencing so grievously all the evils of anarchy, we run the risk of deceiving ourselves as to the nature and extent of the results that can be expected from a return to the craft traditions.Still, for the immense amount of rational and discursive work that art involves, the tradition of a discipline and an education by masters and the continuity in time of human collaboration, in short, the via disciplinae, is absolutely necessary, whether it is a question of technique properly speaking and of material means, or of all the conceptual and rational replenishing which certain arts (above all in classical times) require and carry along -- or, finally, of the indispensable maintenance of a sufficiently high level of culture in the average run of artists and artisans, each one of whom it is absurd to ask to be an "original genius." Let us add, in order to have the thought of Saint Thomas in its entirety, that in every discipline and in all teaching the master only assists from the outside the principle of immanent activity which is within the pupil. From this point of view, teaching relates to the great notion of ars cooperativa naturae. Whereas certain arts apply themselves to their matter in order to dominate it, and to impose on it a form which it has only to receive -- such as the art of a Michelangelo torturing marble like a tyrant -- others, because they have for matter nature itself, apply themselves to their matter in order to serve it, and to help it to attain a form or a perfection which can be acquired only through the activity of an interior principle; such are the arts which "cooperate with nature," as, for instance, medicine, with corporeal nature, or teaching (as also the art of directing souls), with spiritual nature. These arts operate only by furnishing the interior principle within the subject with the means and the assistance it avails itself of in order to produce its effect. It is the interior principle, the intellectual light present in the pupil, which is, in the acquisition of science and art, the principal cause or principal agent.*If it be a question now of the fine arts in particular, their contact with being and the transcendentals creates for them, as regards the rules of art, an altogether special condition.
And straightway they are subject to a law of renewal, and therefore of change, which the other arts do not acknowledge or at least do not acknowledge for the same reason.
Beauty, like being, has an infinite amplitude. But the work as such, realized in matter, exists in a certain genus, in aliquo genere. And it is impossible for a genus to exhaust a transcendental. Outside the artistic genre to which this work belongs, there is always an infinity of ways of being a beautiful work. A sort of conflict may therefore be observed between the transcendence of beauty and the material narrowness of the work to be made, between, on the one hand, the formal ratio of beauty, the splendor of being and of all the transcendentals combined, and, on the other hand, the formal ratio of art, undeviating ingenuity in the realm of works-to-be-made. No form of art, however perfect, can encompass beauty within its limits, as the Virgin contained her Creator. The artist is faced with an immense and lonely sea,. . . sans mâts, sans mâts, ni fertiles îlots,and the mirror he holds up to it is no bigger than his own heart. The creator in art is he who discovers a new analogate of the beautiful, a new way in which the radiance of form can shine on matter. The work that he makes, and which as such exists in a certain genus, is from then onwards in a new genus and requires new rules -- I mean a new adaptation of the fundamental and perennial rules, and even the use of viae certae et determinatae not hitherto employed and which at first disconcert people. At that moment the contemplative activity in contact with the transcendental, which constitutes the proper life of the fine arts and of their rules, is clearly predominant. But almost inevitably talent, cleverness, pure technique, the merely operative activity that pertains to the genus art, will little by little get the upper hand, at the moment when one no longer exerts oneself except to exploit what was once discovered; then the rules formerly living and spiritual become materialized, and this form of art finally exhausts itself. A renewal will be necessary. Please God that a genius be found to bring it about! Even so the change will perhaps lower the general level of art; and yet change is the very condition of art's life and of the flowering of great works. We may believe that from Bach to Beethoven and from Beethoven to Wagner art declined in quality, in spirituality, and in purity. But who would bold enough to say that one of these three men was less necessary than the other? If they load their art with exotic riches too heavy for any but themselves to bear, it happens that the most powerful ones are the most dangerous. Rembrandt is a bad master; but who would refuse him one's affection? Even though painting was to be wounded for it, it is better that he should have played and won, made his miraculous breach in the invisible world. It is indeed true that there is no necessary progress in art, that tradition and discipline are the true nurses of originality; and it is likewise true that the feverish acceleration which modern individualism, with its mania for revolution in mediocrity, imposes on the succession of art forms, abortive schools, and puerile fashions, is the symptom of wide-spread intellectual and social poverty. And yet the fact remains that art has a fundamental need of novelty: like nature, it goes in seasons.
Unlike Prudence, Art does not presuppose straightness of the appetite, that is to say, of the power of willing and loving, in relation to the end of man or in the line of morality. It nevertheless presupposes, as Cajetan explains, that the appetite tend straightly to the proper end of the art, so that the principle: "the truth of the practical intellect does not consist in conformity with the thing, but in conformity with the straight appetite," rules the sphere of Making as well as that of Doing. In the fine arts the general end of art is beauty. But in their case the work-to-be-made is not a simple matter to be ordered to this end, like a clock one makes for the purpose of telling time or a boat one builds for the purpose of travelling on water. As an individual and original realization of beauty, the work which the artist is about to make is for him an end in itself: not the general end of his art, but the particular end which rules his present activity and in relation to which all the means must be ruled. Now, in order to judge suitably concerning this individual end, that is to say, in order to conceive the work-to-be-made reason alone is not enough, a good disposition of the appetite is necessary, for everyone judges of his own ends in accordance with what he himself actually is: "As everyone is, so does the end appear to him." Let us conclude therefore that in the painter, poet, and musician, the virtue of art, which resides in the intellect, must not only overflow into the sense faculties and the imagination, but it requires also that the whole appetitive power of the artist, his passions and will, tend straightly to the end of his art. If all of the artist's powers of desire and emotion are not fundamentally straight and exalted in the line of beauty, whose transcendence and immateriality are superhuman, then human life and the humdrum of the senses, and the routine of art itself, will degrade his conception. The artist has to love, he has to love what he is making, so that his virtue may truly be, in Saint Augustine's words, ordo amoris, so that beauty may become connatural to him and inviscerate itself in him through affection, and so that his work may come forth from his heart and his bowels as well as from his lucid spirit. This undeviating love is the supreme rule. But love presupposes intellect; without it love can do nothing, and, in tending to the beautiful, love tends to what can delight the intellect.Finally, because in the fine arts the work-to-be-made is -- precisely as beautiful -- an end in itself, and because this end is something absolutely individual, something entirely unique, each occasion presents to the artist a new and unique way of striving after the end, and therefore of ruling the matter. Hence there is a remarkable analogy between the fine arts and Prudence. No doubt art always keeps its viae certae et determinatae, and the proof of this is that the works of the same artist or of the same school are all stamped with the same fixed and determined characteristics. But it is with prudence, eubulia, good sense and perspicacity, circumspection, precaution, deliberation, industry, memory, foresight, intelligence and divination, it is by using prudential rules not fixed beforehand but determined according to the contingency of singular cases, it is in an always new and unforeseeable manner that the artist applies the rules of his art: only on this condition is its ruling infallible. "A painting," said Degas, "is a thing which requires as much cunning, rascality and viciousness as the perpetration of a crime." For different reasons, and because of the transcendence of their object, the fine arts thus partake, like hunting or the military art, in the virtues of government. In the end, all the rules having become connatural to him, the artist seemingly has no other rule than to espouse at each moment the living contour of a unique and dominating intuitive emotion that will never recur. This artistic prudence, this kind of spiritual sensibility in contact with matter, corresponds in the operative order to the contemplative activity and the proper life of art in contact with the beautiful. To the extent that the rules of the Academy prevail, the fine arts revert to the generic type of art and to its lower species, the mechanical arts.
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Vale: Get to the medical bay, make sure he’s still secure. I’ll follow behind with Hala.
Samuel: Vale, are you sure? I wouldn’t want to risk your….
Vale: I’ll be fine, just go!
As concerned as I am about Vale’s health and whether or not he should be carrying anyone to the medical bay, he’s right. If this ‘Doctor’ has anything to do with the people who just abducted Jerro, I need to secure him. It’s possible that if he is connected to all of this, we can maybe use him to get Jerro back.
Samuel: Alright, but you go steady!
Vale: We’ll be fine Samuel, now go!
Without saying another word, I race off towards the medical bay. Hopefully, the reactivated core has started feeding power back to the containment field again. That way, if these abductors are working with him, we can at least hold one of their own hostage to give us some leverage.
I quickly find my answer as the door opens to the medical bay where I find the self described ‘Doctor’ sat on the same bed we left him on seemingly in meditation. He’s awake, clearly, but thankfully hasn’t escaped. That’s something at least. The field must still be working if he’s still here.
Samuel: Talk, who are you?
The Doctor: Haven’t we already gone over this in the Tardis?
Samuel: You mean that box?
The Doctor: Do you know of any other box that’s dimensionally transcendental?
Samuel: Dimensionally what?
The Doctor: Bigger on the inside. Gosh you’re awfully forgetful.
Samuel: Where’s Jerro?
The Doctor: Who?
Samuel: Jerro. The young boy your people just abducted?
The Doctor: My people? I have people now? Sorry, regeneration has a habit of scrambling the brain a little bit. What do you mean by ‘my people’?
Samuel: Your friends who just abducted Jerro! The nine year old boy who was helping us run this ship!
The Doctor: What? Why would someone abduct a nine year old child?
Samuel: You tell me.
The Doctor: I don’t know. But I’m keen to find out. Tell me, I can’t help but detect a faint electromagnetic charge in the air, these abductors didn’t happen to use some sort of teleport did they?
Samuel: Yes….they did….how did you know? You’ve been trapped here since we brought you here.
That probably explains why I’m lacking one sonic screwdriver. If the crew of this vessel brought me here and felt inclined to use a crude containment field to try and restrain me, they’re probably some distance away from mastering the manipulation of matter for teleportation. No wonder they took the sonic away from me. To this lot it could very well be a laser sword or a brand new source of power. Well….I suppose it could actually be the latter, but they were never going to know the difference.
The Doctor: I thought that’s what the faint surge I sensed was!
Samuel:….You can tell when someone’s used a teleport?
The Doctor: On a good day. Teleportation systems almost always leave a slight charge in the air after use. Normally this charge is outside the range of what most species can detect, fortunately we Time Lords can sense just about all forms of electromagnetic energy. Give or take a few.
Samuel: Time Lord?
The Doctor: You haven’t heard of us? Charming. A billion years shaping the fabric of time and space and this is our legacy. Absolutely nothing. We’re a class of Gallifreyans who were one of the first beings to master the art of time travel. As such, it has been our duty to watch over and observe all of time and space.
Samuel: You can’t be serious. You’re telling me that you have control over time and space?
The Doctor: Well…..not really, more I have influence with it on a good day and can travel throughout it.
Samuel: That’s ridiculous.
The Doctor: You’ve set foot inside a box that’s bigger on the inside and just had a young boy abducted from your colony ship using a teleporter that doesn’t belong to this time period. Welcome to reality. Ridiculous, isn’t it?
Samuel: Wait, what did you just say?
The Doctor: Welcome to reality. Ridiculous, isn’t i…
Samuel: No, not that bit. What did you say about the teleporter?
The Doctor: That it doesn’t belong to this time period. Open ended transmat technology won’t be developed by humanity for at least another hundred years….or is it four hundred years? Sorry, my memory is all over the place right now.
Samuel: So you’re not with those that abducted Jerro?
The Doctor: If I am, it’s news to me.
Samuel: But you know the teleportation technology? Can you track it?
The Doctor: Can I? I’d never have made out of the academy if I couldn’t track or even reverse a basic particle matter transporter. I just need my sonic screwdriver.
Samuel: Sonic screwdriver?
The Doctor: Metal thing, gold tip with an orange light. Makes a noise when you press the button and possibly does a few other things if you’re not careful. Looks a bit like a cool magic wand.
Samuel: Do you mean this thing?
Miraculously, the boy knew exactly what I was saying without the need to describe it further. Most unusual, have I managed to get better at describing things simply to humans? This new regeneration is amazing so far! Seeing him remove it from his jacket pocket is even better though, as that means the sonic was in close proximity to whoever or whatever was teleported. So in theory….
The Doctor: Yes, exactly that thing. Pass it to me.
At first he reaches forward to hand the sonic over to me before pausing.
Samuel: Hold on, I need to disable the containment field first.
The Doctor: Why? It’s been down ever since your power core shut off.
Samuel: It has?
The Doctor: Yeah….things that require power tend to shut off they losespower.
Samuel: Then why haven’t you tried to escape?
The Doctor: Regeneration is a tiring process, plus I couldn’t leave without my sonic screwdriver now that would be very irresponsible of me.
Samuel: Regeneration? You’re not making any sense.
The Doctor: Well, some things never change. Now come on we haven’t got all say, pass me the screwdriver.
The young man reaches inwards to pass me the sonic just when his colleague enters the room carrying an unconscious woman over his shoulders.
Vale: Help me with her.
Before I can grab hold of the screwdriver, the young man walks over to help his elderly friend lift the unconscious woman onto the bed beside mine. They both quickly check her pulse again to make sure she’s alright. Judging from her current condition I’d say she was stunned. An unwelcome surprise no doubt, but she’ll be fine in an hour or so depending upon what setting the weapon used.
The Doctor: She’ll be fine, from what I can tell she was only stunned. Give it an hour or so and she’ll be good as new.
Vale: How do you know that?
The Doctor: Still breathing, unconscious but no visible signs of trauma points towards an energy weapon of some sorts. Given how your colleague here has now confirmed that a transmat was also used by people to board and leave this ship, it doesn’t take a genius to work out that your boarders stunned her and then fled having kidnapped young Jerro.
Vale: How do you know all that?
The Doctor: Your friend told me.
The Doctor: Yes, friend. Or colleague or whatever you want to call him. Actually that’s a good point, what is your name again?
Samuel: Samuel….Samuel Whitehall. This is….
Vale: Vale. The name’s Vale.
The Doctor: No last name?
Vale: Not one I’m willing to reveal.
The Doctor: Okay…..right as I was saying. Pass me the screwdriver and I’ll help you retrieve your friend.
Vale: Sonic screwdriver?
Samuel: He means this thing.
Samuel raises his hand that has hold of the sonic for Vale to see.
Vale: That’s a screwdriver?
The Doctor: It’s sonic.
As Vale appears perplexed by the idea that the sonic is in fact a screwdriver, Samuel walks forward and places it on the foot of my bed.
Vale: Wait, Samuel.
Samuel: What is it now?
The pair turn to look at each other as I quietly reach across and grab hold of the sonic. I quickly check to see if it managed to get a good enough background scan of the signal left behind by the boarders transmat beam. Thankfully, it did.
Vale: You’re seriously going to trust this total stranger, just like that?
Samuel: He says he can get Jerro back, Vale. We have to try.
Vale: But how can we be sure he won’t just run off the moment we let him back into his ship?
The Doctor: You can come with me, if you want.
The Doctor: There’s plenty of space in my ship for more than one, well you’ve both seen that with your own eyes. But if you really want to get Jerro back then sure, come with me.
Samuel: I don’t know about this.
Vale: What about Hala?
The Doctor: She’ll be out for at least another hour. Come on, it shouldn’t take that long to get your friend back.
Both of them seem conflicted, at guess I’d says it’s over whether it’s right to leave their friend alone in her current condition. Or maybe it’s trying to decide whether or not they can trust me. Either way I’m not particularly fussed. They were kind enough to give me a bed when I needed some time to rest, so it’s only right that I return the favour. Possibly without the need for a containment field.
They both turn back to face me before having one last glance at the unconscious woman.
Samuel: Are you sure she’ll be alright?
The Doctor: Don’t worry. It’s a time machine. We’ll be there and back in a second. So what do you say?
Samuel: We’re in.
The Doctor: Marvellous. Alright, let’s go! To the Tardis!
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The Swan song (in ancient Greek: κύκνειον ᾆσμα) is a metaphorical phrase for a final gesture, effort, or performance given just before death or retirement. The phrase refers to an ancient belief that swans (Cygnus spp.) sing a beautiful song in the moment just before death, having been silent (or alternatively, not so musical) during most of their lifetime. This belief, whose basis in actuality is long-debated, had become proverbial in Ancient Greece by the 3rd century BCE, and was reiterated many times in later Western poetry and art.
But in the interval, Brahms always publicly denied that he was thinking of his longtime friend-and the unattainable love of his life-when he composed what was to become his swan song.
The Open Biographical Secrets of Rudolf Steiner’s Drama Characters, Part II
Blavatsky and the Consciousness Soul: What struck the young Carl Unger most was how the experiences of this seeress could be scientifically described and understood. Indeed, this is a character trait of all “Strader souls”. A scientific person of this kind is someone who strives to harmonize the regular natural laws found for example in physics, chemistry and biology, with difficult to explain spiritual phenomena and facts, such as those found in spiritualists, mediums, and somnambulists. In this regard Steiner directly refers to the work of a man who should be regarded as a further “Stader soul”, the engineer Ludwig Deinhard (1847-1918). In 1910 Deinhard published the book Das Mysterium des Menschen (The Mystery of Man), which Steiner praised because it sought a harmony between science and esotericism.Indeed, Part One of Deinhard’s book is an overview of the results of modern scientific researchers such as Richard Hodgson, Joseph Maxwell and Carl du Prel into the trance-like states found in spiritism und mediumism.Ludwig Deinhard was a theosophist who had translated into German parts of Madame Blavatsky’s Secret Doctrine and was deeply interested in her revelations of ancient wisdom. Hence, if Deinhard should be brought into connection with Strader, then Madame Blavatsky too could be considered as a model for some of the characteristics of Theodora. Steiner himself never personally met Blavatsky, she died in 1891, so she cannot be the character’s main prototype. With regard to the question of Madame Blavatsky’s seership, Steiner remarked that despite her chaotic soul, Blavatsky was still able to reveal a number of extremely ancient truths. However, he also characterised many of her results as distorted and erroneous, and classified her mode of knowledge as “atavistic”, i.e. as a retrogressive mode of investigation. In fact, after joining the Theosophical Society in 1902 Steiner set himself precisely the task of overcoming all atavistic modes of knowledge that were then present in this society: this “program was necessarily connected with the complete renunciation of all mediumism and atavism”. Steiner’s approach also involved a radical break with the Eastern-style principle of the retention of esoteric knowledge to select and private circles, and aimed instead to follow in the Western tradition of Plato and Goethe, to found an entirely open spiritual “movement that linked onto occidental occultism and exclusively onto this, and which tries to develop it further.”As mentioned, although Steiner frequently spoke positively of Blavatsky’s deed in revealing certain ancient truths, he believed her state of consciousness to be mediumistic in general, and therefore inappropriate for a modern spiritual movement that was to conform with the demands of scientific thinking on the one hand, and be based on the “consciousness soul” (Bewusstseinsseele) on the other. What is the consciousness soul? It is that member of the human being that allows one to have a conscious perception of the activity of the I or ego. If trance or dream-like consciousness involves the dimming or absence of the I, the mode of consciousness connected with the consciousness soul is a strengthening of one’s own inner ego-activity. In his autobiography The Course of My Life Steiner specifically classifies Blavatsky’s research method as atavism because her state of consciousness had descended below that of the consciousness soul: “For she [Blavatsky] was a human individuality in whom, through a remarkable kind of atavism, the spiritual worked as it once had in the leaders of the mysteries, in a state of consciousness, which compared to the modern state of the consciousness that is thoroughly illuminated by the consciousness soul, is dimmed down into a dream-like state. Thus, there was revived in ‘Blavatsky the human being’ something that in ancient times was at home in the mysteries.”In The Course of My Life Steiner furthermore relates that he acquired a better view into the unusual nature of Blavatsky’s soul thanks to a woman he met in Munich who was connected with one of the circles to which Ludwig Deinhard belonged. This woman was Helene von Schewitsch (1843-1911), who remained loyal to Blavatsky’s teachings on theosophy until the end of her life. Could von Schewitsch therefore be one of the models for the drama character of Theodora? Steiner pointed to von Schewitsch’s autobiography: Wie ich mein Selbst fand (How I found my Self), which recounts how she was once a medium herself during a séance in Saint Petersburg. Frau Schewitsch is above all known for the fact that the celebrated socialist thinker Ferdinand Lassalle died in a duel that had been fought over her. A strong and notable tendency throughout von Schewitsch’s life was in fact to understand the psychic phenomena of Theosophy from a distinctly scientific perspective. Her writings and autobiography engage with the work of many of the scientific figures found in Deinhard’s above-mentioned book. Accordingly, the wedding of Theodora to the scientist Strader could be interpreted in the light of von Schewitsch’s own attempt to understand mediumistic phenomena more scientifically. There is also the fact that Frau Schewitsch died in 1911, while the character of Theodora dies in the third mystery drama of 1912. Some might therefore be inclined to see a parallel situation with Gideon Spicker’s death in 1912 and the death of the character of Strader into the fourth drama of 1913. But as we shall see, there is a further reason for Theodora’s death.There are undoubtedly a number of similarities between Theodora, Blavatsky and von Schewitsch, but one should also take into account the significant differences between them. These include the fact that the description of Theodora’s life in the first drama is clearly at odds with the biographies of both these women, and that Blavatsky’s presentations on theosophy essentially concern the past and much less the future – her writings are a revival of the wisdom of earlier epochs. Finally, according to Steiner, Blavatsky was originally inspired by Western occultists but her thought became progressively “anti-Christian”, in the sense that she and many people like her in the Theosophical movement did not ascribe a more central role to the Christ being or to esoteric Christianity. This is obviously a crucial divergence from the personality of Theodora, whom Steiner depicts as someone having a prophetic vision of the future Christ experience and as an important representative of Rosicrucian Christianity.Theodora’s Prophetic Revelation By: David W. Wood June 24, 2014
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Sexier than Kellywise the dancing evil clown !
#hash #mental #waves #kellywise #kellyanne #conway #titty #twitty #trump #fakepresident #turtleisland #corp #corporation #inc #haliburton #fracking #duck #sexy #erotic #naked #horny #nude #undressed #bent #samesex #marriage #debate #mass #masturbate #gay #lesbian #bisexual #asexual #zsexual #spice #sean #sarah #fuckabee #huckabee #sanders #scaramucci #homosexual #homeland #dept #department #affairs #bicurious #eharmony #hotwife #dating #metrosexual #monosexual #pansexual #ivanka #mar-a-lago #sapiosexual #trisexual #demisexual #heterosexual #sexual #fluidity #ace #spades #pet #petting #zoo #family #game #war #northkorea #fire #age #missive #superministry #homeoffice
" The department received an increase in queries regarding our position surrounding pets and this has resulted in a minor change in operational policy... " WTF? Babyface Dutton is already trying to apply super-ministry micro-management draconianism to asylum seekers. What a fucktard!
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Etang de la Loy
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Young Adults In Transition To College & Work
We often think of young adults as ready to launch easily into college, career and dynamic adult social scenes. Yet this transition from a supportive and protective home or school environment to independent living is a bridge to adulthood that many young adults find fraught with great difficulty, confusion and profound loneliness. Older teens and young adults in their twenties are often not adapting well to work place environments and find they do not possess the necessary interpersonal skills to succeed in adult and work relationships. Additionally, economic pressures are more extreme than ever and they often have unrealistic hopes of independence and financial self-direction. They feel thrown into a world without a real understanding of how to survive or succeed in it. Much is written about this "quarter life crisis." Young adults need to find a more realistic view for their own lives. They need help as they face the hard realities that they haven't accomplished certain necessary adult tasks and milestones of young adult success. These tasks include finding a college or career, mastering public transportation, navigating agreements with financial sponsors and parents, establishing adult roles in the home, dorm or apartment, managing a grocery budget, cooking, healthy living, multi-tasking, delayed gratification, or allotting appropriate time to significant priorities. Unexpected difficulties can derail even the most successful young adult or college student. Parents and their young adult sons and daughters who were once in alignment when planning the launch to college or independent living are often faced with the pain of unmatched expectations, disorganized time-lines, and resentful conversations. Young adult lives and good relationships can quickly turn upside down. Young adults in transition are students between high school and college, post-college, or returning home from boarding schools, gap-years, or military service. They seek to set new goals and define new directions for their future. These normal, yet rapid young adult changes can be especially tough on parents. Parents often need guidance and coaching as they redefine their new roles as parents to adult children. Young adults need adult wisdom and strong guidance, but in their need to differentiate, they often respond negatively to parental support. Coaching can change that dynamic by producing skill building and management practices that can benefit both the student and their parents.
What Do Young Adult Coaches Do? Encourage you to express yourself and your personal goals Advocate for you with your parents Establish appropriate areas of independence Navigate personal financial arrangements with sponsors & parents Teach time management
Help you devise a workable daily schedule Listen and learn from your ideas and dreams- take you seriously! Assign homework and tasks that move you towards your goals
Make necessary connections to adult mentors and guides Help you accomplish/produce results more quickly than you imagined Assist with applications to college and internships
Questions Young Adults & Parents Frequently Ask: What Is Young Adult Coaching?
With your young adult coach you will identity the actions and thoughts and words that best support and move you towards your goals. Often young adults create goals and then are challenged by staying aligned with them. Our coaches will help you develop the action plan and steps towards living a life that keeps you true to yourself and more accountable in your relationships.You may be facing a more conventional transition, such as moving away to college or starting a new job, or the unique challenges of beginning college as a student who has experienced physical, emotional, or mental health problems. Learning disorders or family crises may add additional stresses and young adults desire coaching support to be ready and able to meet these demands. Coaching can empower you and help you launch yourself with confidence and skill. How Does Coaching Differ From Counseling?
Coaching is not the same as therapy. It is a more immediate and directive process. Coaching involves action, action that meets goals. Although our coaches are credentialed therapists, their additional training in coaching allows them to better support you in present and future focus, whereas therapy often focuses on current emotional issues, and at times the past. Coaching is both in-person and in-the-moment by phone, text, and email; supporting you no matter where you are located and when you need it. Customized Coaching Options: Individualized Coaching Packages support you in academic skill building, as well as vocational and personal goals. Life skill development includes competency in money management, time and organizational management, and refining of executive thinking skills for greater success. Parent and Family Coaching to support your positive and personalized launch into adult life and your parent's adaptation to your new role as an adult Unique learning opportunities when in transition, such as internship programs, resume/portfolio building options, 5th or gap year choices, and more Accountability systems: ways to optimize the support & communication between young adults and their parents Supervised living and residential arrangements High School Diploma Completion
Top level tutors-current college and university level instructors to help you improve skills and provide learning support Each young adult transition plan is completely customized to your young adult and family needs.
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“In One Dimensions, did not a moving Point produce a Line with two terminal points?
In two Dimensions, did not a moving Line produce a Square wit four terminal points?
In Three Dimensions, did not a moving Square produce - did not the eyes of mine behold it - that blessed being, a Cube, with eight terminal points?
And in Four Dimensions, shall not a moving Cube - alas, for Analogy, and alas for the Progress of Truth if it be not so - shall not, I say the motion of a divine Cube result in a still more divine organization with sixteen terminal points?
Behold the infallible confirmation of the Series, 2, 4, 8, 16: is not this a Geometrical Progression? Is not this - if I might qupte my Lord's own words - "Strictly according to Analogy"?
Again, was I not taught by my Lord that as in a Line there are two bonding points, and in a Square there are four bounding Lines, so in a Cube there must be six bounding Squares? Behold once more the confirming Series: 2, 4, 6: is not this an Arithmetical Progression? And consequently does it not of necessity follow that the more divine offspring of the divine Cube in the Land of Four Dimensions, must have eight bounding Cubes: and is not this also, as my Lord has taught me to believe, "strictly according to analogy"?”
― Edwin A. Abbott, Flatland: A Romance of Many Dimensions
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Etang de la Loy
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Hala: Jerro! Jerro where are you?
Jarl: She’s getting closer.
Carlo: Then you’d better hurry up and get the ship back in range to transmat us off.
Jarl: Carlo, don’t do what I think you’re about to do.
Carlo: It’s the first rule of time travel, Jarl. We cannot be seen or we risk splintering the timeline.
Jarl: But we’ve already become part of the timeline from the moment we shut down the drive core!
Jerro: You two are the reason the power core shutdown?
Carlo: Quiet heathen. We have no choice Jarl. We don’t know anything about the crew on this ship, they could be well armed. I’m not about to risk losing another one of us simply to keep you happy. Now hurry up and get the ship here!
Damn it Hala, we’ve been boarded by an unknown force and they’re currently holding Jerro hostage. The last thing we need right now is to be divided and rushing into an unknown situation.
Samuel: Vale, please tell me you know a quick way to get to cryo.
Vale: Take a hard right here.
Samuel: The climate system?
Vale: You wanted a quick way, I can’t give you one that’s comfortable as well.
Samuel: Damn it, fine pass me a gun.
Vale: You don’t want me to come with you?
Samuel: Given how we have no idea what we’re dealing with we can’t risk moving in from just one direction. I’ll head to cryo from here, you take the main entrance.
As I open the access hatch and into the tunnel for the climate control system, Vale passes me one of the guns he retrieved from the armour. Instinctively, I perform a quick check to know just what firearm I’m using. It’s then that I notice something.
Samuel: Why’s it on setting 3?
Vale: Why do you think it shouldn’t be?
Samuel: We don’t know what we’re dealing with here, Vale. I really don’t think we should be walking into a standoff with our weapons set only on stun.
Vale: This whole exodus is a new start for humanity. I’ll be damned if our first encounter ends in bloodshed. The gun stays on setting 3.
Samuel: You’re worried we might hit Jerro.
Vale: It’s not you hitting him that I’m worried about.
Samuel: He’ll be alright Vale, I promise you.
I holster my gun before crouching down to make my way into the tunnel. Vale’s quick to close the hatch behind me to avoid the ship wasting power on trying to rebalance the sector’s climate.
Hala: Jerro! Can you hear me?
Hala! I can hear her voice. By the sounds of it, she hasn’t found Jerro yet or the intruders which is relieving. What isn’t, is that she sounds close, and given how I’m not far away from the cryobay this is the last thing I want.
Carlo: If she spots us, I’m taking the shot.
Jarl: You can’t. We don’t know anything about her or where she fits into all this.
Carlo: She’s a member of this ship, which means she plays a significant part in his future. Her timeline will change as soon as his does.
They’re going to shoot her. Come on Samuel, you’ve got to hurry.
I crawl through the tunnels as quickly as I can towards cryo bay, though my height makes it difficult to fit through some of the tight gaps. This sort of stuff is really more Jerro’s line of work. Thankfully, as I make it out of the climate control tunnels just before Hala is able to open the door.
Samuel: Hala wait!
Hala: We can’t afford to wait, who knows just what they’re doing to Jerro in there!
Before I can say anything else, she opens the door and is almost immediately hit by an energy bolt from the assailant. As the bolt collides with her body, she almost immediately collapses on to the ground. Instinctively, I race to her side and check for a pulse.
Samuel: Hala!? Hala speak to me!
As I’m checking for a pulse, Vale enters the cryo bay and after glancing at Hala, he quickly begins to fire on the intruders.
Jarl: Locking on and…..
The younger intruder’s sentence is cut off as he, his associate and Jerro all disappear in a bright flash of light.
Samuel: Vale, help! I’m not getting a pulse!
Vale runs over to me and begins to examine Hala. You’d probably never have guessed that the ship’s chief mechanic is also it’s highest ranking medical officer. Well, the highest ranked one that isn’t stuck in cryo. In hindsight though, I can’t help but wonder why he’s the only one qualified enough to access the medical supplies from what I see him do. I’m head of security and everything Vale does to check on Hala is little more than common sense.
He starts by placing his hand close to her mouth and nostrils to check for breath.
Vale: She’s breathing. Slowly, but she’s breathing. Steady but faint pulse so nothing to be alarmed about. Looks like she was simply stunned.
Samuel: How come you could find a pulse but I couldn’t?
Vale: Hala’s always had a difficult pulse to find, but it’s not a problem so long as you know where to look for it.
Samuel: Who were those people, Vale?
Vale: I have no idea, but whoever they were, they wanted everyone alive. Hala’s living proof of that.
Samuel: But what about Jerro? What do you think they want with him?
Vale: I have no idea. But I think I know someone who might.
Samuel: Our stowaway?
Vale: I think it’s time we have a word with this so called ‘Doctor’.
-Valorem Protector Time Jump Ship-
Jarl: You said you wouldn’t kill anyone!
Carlo: Calm down, Jarl. I simply stunned her.
Jarl: But she still saw us! They still saw us!
Carlo: So what? He’s from this time period and he saw us, hell he can still see us right now!
Jerro: Where are we?
Carlo: Shut your mouth you monster. Did I give you permission to speak?
Jerro: No, but…
Carlo: Then keep quiet. You speak when spoken to.
Jarl: We’ve gone too far, Carlo. We can’t keep going with this.
Carlo: Just because we were seen doesn’t mean the whole timeline is in danger, Jarl. You know that as well as I do. Don’t start trying to enforce that whole ‘observe but never interfere’ nonsense now. Not when we’re so close.
Jarl: But how do we know this will bring Valorem back? What if we just make things worse!?
Carlo: With him dead, the Exodus war will never come to be. The Holy Beta will never come to power and you will never have to lose Geji. Not anymore.
Reluctantly, the cautious Jarl yields to Carlo’s framing bringing an end to their argument.
Jarl: So what do we do with him?
Carlo: We let know just what sort of monster he’ll become.
Jerro: What I will become?
Carlo: That’s right your Holiness, you’re about to experience your own personal hell. But first, we’re going to give you a glimpse at the future, and what you’ll become.
Carlo raises his gun and pushes it firmly into the back of the terrified Jerro who immediately raises both his hands to show his co-operation.
Carlo: Now move.
Fearful for his life, Jerro complies and walks forward as Carlo follows behind keeping the barrel of his weapon pointed firmly into the young man’s back.
Carlo: Set a course for Valorem, devastation day.
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in an unknown very rapid tongue
“Today, when all of us are overwhelmed with data from many sources, it is easy to understand why people feel that they are losing touch, even in their own field. In spite of television, or possibly because of it, people feel a loss of relatedness to the world at large. Information overload increases the need for organizing frames of reference to integrate the mass of rapidly changing information. The Hidden Dimension attempts to provide such an organizing frame for space as a system of communication, and for the spatial aspects of architecture and city planning…In writing about my research on people’s use of space – the space that they maintain among themselves and their fellows, and that they build around themselves in their cities, their homes, and their offices – my purpose is to bring to awareness what as been taken for granted. By this means, I hope to increase self-knowledge and decrease alienation. In sum, to help introduce people to themselves.” – Edward T. Hall
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catch a lion in an urban or desert nobody interress the Defence of Paris in nature turns roundabout