Amalgamated data for psychology is current as of 2017/10/19 01:43:50

DSC_1685

katarzynaŚ posted a photo:

DSC_1685

Kopernik Centre , with power of mind to push the ball

Toast On You

_Hadock_ posted a photo:

Toast On You

Camara /Camera: Nikon D80
Objetivo / Lense: Nikon 50mm f/1,8
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If you wish to have a printed copy of this photo, please contact me.
Si te interesa obtener una copia impresa de esta foto, por favor contactad conmigo.
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glamor Bunny

begemot_dn posted a photo:

glamor Bunny

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Kiarmi posted a photo:

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Post-Human

R J Poole - The Anima Series posted a photo:

Post-Human

Anima Series 5
Sitting No. 139
Lismore NSW 2017

Law of Attraction: A Potentially Life-Changing Philosophy

The Insider Tales posted a photo:

Law of Attraction: A Potentially Life-Changing Philosophy

Law of Attraction: A Potentially Life-Changing Philosophy www.theinsidertales.com/law-attraction-potentially-life-c...

20110212_gaf_u41_2659.jpg

vestidetalno posted a photo:

20110212_gaf_u41_2659.jpg

cardriver makes angry gestures - Germany, Europe

Dream: Woman and Birds / Rêve: Femme et des oiseaux

H - - J posted a photo:

Dream: Woman and Birds  / Rêve: Femme et des oiseaux

Toronto

From the Jungian point of view, birds are symbolic of “messengers” from the unconscious who can, on the one hand, provide the ego with many helpful spontaneous thoughts, ideas, gut feelings and intuitions etc. in order to move ahead more effectively.

On the other hand, if the birds are, for example, scavengers such as vultures, they would tend to symbolize dark, destructive opinions and other negative mental products of the unconscious.

In this image, the woman symbolically “turns her back” on such messengers. The fact that the birds are “metallic” and not living beings could indicate that such an attitude has been ongoing for a period of time, the result being that the “messengers” could perhaps have turned into cold, negative thoughts or impulses from the psyche.

Woman with a Red Ribbon

Marc Boom Photography posted a photo:

Woman with a Red Ribbon

Woman with a Red Ribbon
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My photographic version of the van Gogh painting "Portrait of a Woman with a Red Ribbon, december 1885" (from the Alfred Wyler collection, New York).
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How did I create this photo?
It was very difficult to find the blouse that exactly matched the original. Until it suddenly appeared on Ebay! Maybe it wasn't exactly the same but good enough for me. Although it was pink, that was easily corrected digitally.
For the red ribbon, I didn't mind to use something that i just liked instead of looking someting exactly the same.
Ofcourse, the model, is always a thing. I alway look for someone that gives me the same vibe as in the original painting, not necessarily an exact copy.
The curly Van Gogh like background is custom made.
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The whole proces of researching, planning, finding the clothing and model, testing light set-ups and camera settings, shooting and post-processing in Photoshop, took me about three months.
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Thanks to my dear wife Marcella for helping me find the clothing, props and lighting assistance.
Thanks to Vickys Pronk for lighting assistance.
Thanks to the model Mauretta Zwartjes.
Thanks to the make-up and hair specialist Juliana Kaye.
Thanks to Gabriel Ungureanu for painting the background.
Thanks to Leo Vas for post-processing in photoshop.
Thanks to Wisseloord Studios for making room availble for the shoot.
Thanks to Hebbes Casting and Wouter K Rocklander for giving the model free time for the shoot!
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The original Van Gogh painting is currently not on display in the Van Gogh Museum or The Kröller-Müller Museum or any other museum that has work by Van Gogh. It is in a private collection.
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My first Van Gogh photo won the Portrait challenge 2016 at DIGIFOTOPro magazine.
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#vangogh #fanart #vincentvangogh #vangoghmuseum #krollermullermuseum

Faces

Pictures in my head posted a photo:

Faces

You can also find me on Instagram: www.instagram.com/picturesinmy_head/

Saviour

R J Poole - The Anima Series posted a photo:

Saviour

Anima Series 5
Sitting No. 139
Lismore NSW 2017

"WINDOW / SIGHTLESS" / Sigmund Freud - For Viki

hedbavny posted a photo:

"WINDOW / SIGHTLESS" / Sigmund Freud - For Viki

Freud for Viki Olner.

As found. Part of: "Discoveries in daily life" / at work.

DMC-G2 - P1000161 21.1.2011

Blind Man

R J Poole - The Anima Series posted a photo:

Blind Man

Anima Series 5
Sitting No. 139
Lismore NSW 2017

Law of Attraction: A Potentially Life-Changing Philosophy

The Insider Tales posted a photo:

Law of Attraction: A Potentially Life-Changing Philosophy

Law of Attraction: A Potentially Life-Changing Philosophy www.theinsidertales.com/law-attraction-potentially-life-c...

The Evolution of Consciousness... the most essential elements of the human experience and drama. They manifest both as powerful images.

bernawy hugues kossi huo posted a photo:

The Evolution of Consciousness... the most essential elements of the human experience and drama. They manifest both as powerful images.

Myth and Psyche
The Evolution of Consciousness
This introduction to Jungian psychology was written by Donald Kalsched and Alan Jones as a companion to a photographic exhibition at The Hofstra Museum, in New York City, November 15 – December 19, 1986. The exhibit was presented by The Hofstra Museum with The Archive for Research in Archetypal Symbolism (ARAS). The exhibit was curated by Karin Barnaby and Annmari Ronnberg.

Introduction
Mythology is the most archaic and profound record we have of mankind's essential spirit and nature. As far back as we are able to trace the origins of our species, we find myth and myth-making as the fundamental language through which man relates to life's mystery and fashions meaning from his experiences. The world of myth has its own laws and its own reality. Instead of concepts and facts that make logical sense, we find patterns of irrational imagery whose meaning must be discerned or experienced by the participant-observer. Discovering these patterns of meaning is what Jung meant by the symbolic approach to religion, myth, and dream.
The mythic image is not to be taken literally and concretely as it would be in the belief-system of a particular religion, nor is it to be dismissed as 'mere illusion,' as often happens in scientific circles. Instead, we must approach myth symbolically as revealed eternal 'truths' about mankind's psychic existence — about the reality of the psyche. 'Once upon a time' does not mean 'once' in history but refers to events that occur in eternal time, always and everywhere. Any myth is very much alive today. Every night in sleep we sink back into that source of all mythological imagery, the unconscious psyche — the origin of dreams. Many of our games have their roots in mythology and much of contemporary art, literature, and film is shot through with mythological themes.
The comparative method is the basic key to a symbolic understanding of mythology. Through it we discover certain patterns which recur in widely varying cultures separated by an immensity of both distance and time. Jung called these underlying patterns 'archetypes' from 'arche' meaning primordial, and 'typos' meaning typical. Archetypal images embody the most essential elements of the human experience and drama. They manifest both as powerful images, and as dynamic behavioral patterns. They are a repertoire of instinctive human functioning, analogous in our species to the instinctive impulse that impels, say, the Baltimore Oriole to build a beautiful teardrop nest, or Salmon to return to the streams of their birth. The generality of these images result from recurrent reactions of human beings to situations and stimuli of the same general order, repeated over thousands of years.
The archetypal images represent several basic stages of the life drama symbolized by the Hero myth. They lead from an initial stage of unconsciousness before the ego has awakened, through various stages of heroic struggle, to a final state of 'wholeness' or integration when life has reached its full potential and a relationship between the human and divine has been reestablished. Jung called this process 'individuation,' the process of becoming the true individual that one really is. This 'true self' Jung felt to be the dynamic factor in the unconscious of each individual. It represents the central archetype of order and wholeness among the other archetypes. Jung called it the Self.
The Original Embryonic State
In the beginning of many creation myths is an image of an original state of perfection, wholeness, and beatific containment. This is often represented as a containing circle, cave, pool, or sphere. The predominant archetypal symbol is that of the primordial Earth Goddess — the Great Mother with her nourishing and protective womb. Many other symbols express this archetype. Anything large and embracing or containing, such as a vessel, that enwraps, shelters, and preserves something small and fragile partakes of this 'primordial mother' One very common symbol is the uroborus, the snake with its tail in its mouth. These symbols express a paradisal state prior to any degree of self-sufficiency and autonomy. The Garden of Eden, and the Golden Age when mankind lived in union with the gods, partaking of divine fullness and totality, are other common motifs of this psychological condition. In the biological life of the individual this symbolism corresponds not only to the pre-natal gestation of the embryo in the mother's uterus, but to the state of the newborn's total dependence upon the mother. Psychologically, these symbols express the stage when the ego is only a potential, or when the ego is dominated by the universal instinctual patterns of human response to the world, or a condition when little or nothing of a uniquely personal value is expressed by the individual.
Separation, Creation, and the Birth Of Consciousness
Comparative mythology teaches us that there is always a creative tension or urgency in the original embryonic state which leads to trouble. The great uroboric round breaks open and light is born into the world. A typical personification of this impulse is the snake that tempts Eve to violate her passive containment in the Garden, or the shadowy figure or animal in Fairy Tales that tempt the hero or heroine to break the status quo and do something 'evil,' i.e., individual. Such acts result in expulsion from paradisal condition. The protection of childhood, as well as the contentment with the past or with what has been achieved, are types of a paradise that are lost when life calls for a new adaptation.
This process begins with a cataclysmic separation. In myth it is often imaged as the separation of the world Parents. Father Sky and Mother Earth hold each other in an embrace and the world is left in darkness. The children born between them must thrust them apart, despite their parents' protesting cries and groans. Only then does light enter the world. This light symbolizes consciousness. Only in the light of consciousness can man know. Yet the acquisition of consciousness is a Promethean act subjecting the hero to the danger of inflation and retribution. For stealing fire from the Gods Prometheus was chained to a rock where an eagle ate his liver every night; when Icarus flew too high on his man-made wings, their wax melted and he plunged to his death in the sea. As a bearer of light, the hero is willing to face these dangers, despite the awareness of his aloneness, individuality, and mortality, in order to carry development further.
However, once the apple is eaten the world falls into opposites, and 'good' and 'evil' are assigned their place in the world. The Great Good Mother shows her dark aspect, the hateful or Terrible Mother, while the creative Father now sits opposite the Destructive Father, and brothers kill each other in the name of love, and the world is alternately either an enchanted or persecutory place.
The Hero Myth: Birth, Call, Journey
The hero myth symbolizes that personality formation occurs only through struggle, suffering, and sacrifice. The hero's triumphs and defeats are the paradigms of the individual's confrontation with the challenges of his or her own individual life — no matter how mundane or exalted. The birth of the hero usually occurs in humble surroundings such as a manger or cave, but it is always extraordinary in some way. Often there is a special light around the child, or the child is perceived to be a threat to the King. Frequently, the hero has two fathers — his personal father and a 'higher' father. Often the mother is a virgin, and the hero's conception is of divine origin. The hero thereby inherits a dual nature. He is a human being like everyone else, yet at the same time he feels himself to be an outsider, a stranger to the community. He does not fit in, and discovers within himself something that sets him apart, such as his prophetic powers, healing abilities, or creative powers. These lead him to extraordinary deeds.
The heroic adventure often begins with some message or 'call' from a miraculous source. A frog talks to the princess, or Moses confronts a burning bush, or an empty rice bowl floats upstream (Buddha), or there is an annunciation in a dream. The call often comes at an important moment. Old life values have often been outgrown and a certain sterility has set in. Parsifal's quest for the Holy Grail was set in motion by the Fisher King's realm having become a wasteland. Whatever its form, the call awakens the hero to his or her special destiny.
The Hero Myth: The Dragon Fight and Redemption of the Feminine
In the fight with the dragon the hero battles the regressive forces of the unconscious which threaten to swallow the individuating ego. The forces, personified in figures like Circe, Kali, medusa, sea serpents, Minotaur, or Gorgon, represent the Terrible side of the Great Mother. The Hero may voluntarily submit to being swallowed by the monster, or to a conscious descent into Hades so as to vanquish the forces of darkness. This mortifying descent into the abyss, the sea, the dark cave, or the underworld in order to be reborn to a new identity expresses the symbolism of the night-sea journey through the uterine belly of the monster. It is a fundamental theme in mythology the world over — that of death and rebirth. All initiatory rituals involve this basic archetypal pattern through which the old order and early infantile attachments must die and a more mature and productive life be born in their place.
The mythological goal of the dragon fight is almost always the virgin, the captive, or more generally, the 'treasure hard to attain.' This image of the vulnerable, beautiful, and enchanting woman, guarded by and captive of a menacing monster gives us a picture of the inner core of the personality and its surrounding defenses. The hero's task is to rescue the maiden from the grasp of the monster and, ultimately, to marry her and establish his kingdom with her. This dragon fight and liberation of the captive is the archetypal pattern that can guide us through those major transitional passages in our personal development where a rebirth or reorientation of consciousness is indicated. The captive represents the 'new' element whose liberation makes all further development possible.
In response to the call the hero undertakes a journey, usually a dangerous journey to an unknown region full of both promise and danger. Often the journey is a descent. Sometimes, as with Jonah, Aeneas, Christ, and Psyche, it is a descent into the depths — the sea, the underworld, or Hades itself. Always there is a perilous crossing. Sometimes the faintheartedness of the hero is balanced by the appearance of guardians or helpful animals that enable the hero to perform the superhuman task that cannot be accomplished unaided. These helpful forces are representatives of the psychic totality that supports the ego in its struggle. They bear witness to the fact that the essential function of the hero myth is the development of the individual's true personality.
The Goal of Individuation and Its Symbols
The successful completion of the hero drama forges a relationship between the psychic opposites which split apart at the birth of consciousness. The major symbols for this synthesis are various forms of the Coniunctio Oppositorium or Mandala in which the original wholeness is now re-established but on a higher, more differentiated level. In the images of King and Queen united in marriage, or male and female united in the form of the androgyne, or geometrical opposites paradoxically united in the 'squared circle' or life and death come together in the mysterious image of the immortal God suffering a mortal wound, the integration of the opposites within the personality are symbolized. Additional symbols of wholeness are the elixir of immortality, the pearl of great price, and the divine child, representing a life-transcending potential for future growth.
The hero myth tells us that the ego's courage to suffer the burdens of fear, guilt, and the conflicts within the personality — the willingness to be crucified on the cross of one's own doubleness and to hold this inwardly — is the only way God and man can be reconciled and drawn closer together. The original unity of God and man, as in the Garden, is broken when the ego aspires to consciousness. The ego is then banished to a world full of opposites which war with each other within the personality, as brother falls upon brother in war and devastation. But into the chaos is born the child of light, the hero, whose struggle can forge an everlasting relationship between male and female, light and darkness, life and death, God and man. This is the promise, the Ring, the Covenant, the Flaming Rainbow Bridge which can unite the human and divine in the inward depths of the human psyche.

www.cgjungny.org/d/d_mythpsyche.html

The biblical story of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden (Genesis Chapters 2-3) is foundational to our Western culture and has influenced the upbringing and psychology of all of us, whether we realize it or not.Mythologists as well as many biblical scholars recognize the story as being in the genre of myth, which makes it appropriate to analyze it from the perspective of depth psychology, among other approaches. Indeed, as Joseph Campbell concluded, “This story yields its meaning only to a psychological interpretation” (2001, p. 50). Further, Carl Jung (CW 9.2, para. 230) had already written that “cosmogonic myths are, at bottom, symbols for the coming of consciousness.” But the literature about the Eden story taking such a psychological approach is scant, largely due to traditional and problematic gaps and tensions between academic disciplines. My recent book, The Mythology of Eden, is in part an interdisciplinary effort to take on this fascinating and important task and advance our knowledge on the subject. Below I distill some of my findings from this approach to the Eden myth, and I hope they break some new ground: The Story as Told.In the story, Yahweh warns Adam (before Eve is created) not to eat from the tree of knowledge of good and evil, or he will die that very day. In many mythologies and religions, including traditional Canaanite-Israelite religion, sacred trees have been thought of as conduits for connecting with and directly experiencing the divine, whereas the Eden story’s author insisted upon a covenant (contract) relationship between the divine (Yahweh) on the one hand and the human (earthly, profane, non-divine) sphere on the other. In the ancient biblical world, one way to experience the divine was to partake of the fruit or other produce of the sacred tree or plant, thus imbibing the essence of the divinity represented by or immanent within the tree, but this practice was condemned in the Bible.When Eve was tempted by the serpent to eat the forbidden fruit, she decided to eat it for various reasons, but mainly because she desired wisdom (Gen. 3:6). This purpose was realized when, immediately after Eve and then Adam ate the fruit, “the eyes of both were opened” (Gen. 3:7), and Yahweh remarked (to other divine beings), “See, the man has become like one of us [deities], knowing good and evil” (Gen. 3:22). The questions become: What kind of knowledge/wisdom did Adam and Eve acquire, and what kind of transformation did these archetypal humans undergo? Both relate to the psyche.

The Creation of the Cosmos from ChaosIn ancient Near Eastern creation myths, there was no such thing as creation from nothing. Before the creation, there was always a formless watery substance characterized as “chaos” (see, e.g., Gen. 1:1) because at that stage no time, space, or other order existed. The same is true before the beginning of creation in the Eden story (a separate creation story from that in Genesis 1, by a different, earlier author), only a different metaphor for chaos was used, that of a desert wasteland (Gen. 2:4-5). The ordered cosmos is created like a bubble within the surrounding chaos and is bordered by the solid firmament above and the ground below, as shown in Diagram 1 below. The cosmos (including humans) is made of the same substance as chaos; the only difference is that it is ordered, has multiplicity, and the things created have names given by the creator decreeing their function and destiny.This motif of creation from chaos was universal in the ancient Near East and common around the world. Why? Marie-Louise von Franz (1995, pp. 2-4) explained that this is a natural result of our psyche experiencing its own ego-consciousness coming into being as “world-becoming.” As far as our psyche is concerned, our becoming aware of the world and the world coming into existence are one and the same. This process occurred not only when humans first developed ego-consciousness but also occurs in any young child’s development (as shown by developmental psychology) and in the life of adults, such as when we wake up in the morning from an unconscious state and order falls into place. Our unconscious has no sense of space or time and little sense of order; it is indeed chaotic and is experienced as such. Thus, the dawn of consciousness and our image of the creation of the world are parallel and related processes which throw up corresponding, related symbols. The notion of primordial chaos is a natural projection of an archetypal image that helps make the unknown comprehensible.Chaos as Evil and Sin.After the creation, chaos is not eliminated but continues outside the cosmos, always trying to encroach upon and undo the created cosmos. Particular things are “created” only to the extent that chaos is absent in them. But in fact nothing is perfect (except the initial Garden of Eden); each thing contains some element of chaos. In nature, chaos is manifested in natural disasters such as earthquakes, floods, and violent storms. Since humans are made of the same substance as the rest of the cosmos (recall Adam being formed from the ground and water), chaos can and will inevitably erupt in humans too. In modern psychological terms, this is the unconscious at work. In the biblical world, chaos was typically symbolized by a serpent, so when in the Eden story the serpent appears before Eve, the story’s ancient audience knew that chaos had entered the Garden and Eve’s mind. Her dialogue with the serpent represents this manifestation of chaos within herself and inner turmoil.In normative terms, chaos is viewed as bad (evil), while creation is good. After all, God had created the ordered cosmos from chaos, so that’s what He wanted. The cosmos in this respect has a teleological nature, which should be respected, maintained, and furthered. Chaos manifested in humans is what results in human evil (which the biblical authors said includes pagan religion). This is what Yahweh warns Cain about: “sin is lurking at the door; its desire is for you, but you must master it” (Gen. 4:7, by the same author as the Eden story). The same biblical author later described this chaotic trait within human nature as wild imaginings of the human heart (in the ancient world thought to be the repository of thought) (Gen. 6:5; 8:21), much like Eve’s imaginings during her temptation (Gen. 3:6). Later rabbinical writings characterized this trait as the yezer hara (“impulse to evil”), which became the standard rabbinical explanation for the origin of evil. The ancients did not understand the nature of the unconscious as such, but they did reach the insight that much of human behavior, especially evil behavior, stems from urges deep within and barely susceptible to our rational, conscious control.The Antidote: The Knowledge of Good and Evil, and the Law
Adam and Eve’s transgression in the Garden showed what happens if unrestricted human nature takes its natural course. The author had to provide a remedy. His antidote was twofold: the knowledge of good and evil, combined with the Law (here in its incipient form).First, the immediate result of eating the forbidden fruit was to acquire the godlike knowledge of good and evil. What this knowledge consists of has been the subject of much debate, but actually the Hebrew Bible and the Dead Sea Scrolls go fairly far in explaining it. In several passages they describe this knowledge as being acquired (or perfected) as one passes from minority to adulthood, at the age of 20 (e.g., Isa. 7:14-16). Thus, when the Hebrews rebelled against Yahweh in the wilderness of Sinai, those 20 or older (except for the virtuous Joshua and Caleb) were implicated in this sin and so were not allowed to enter the Promised Land (hence the long stay in the wilderness), while minors under 20 had no knowledge of good and evil and so were considered incapable of sin, and therefore would eventually enter the Promised Land (Num. 14:29-30; Deut. 1:39). The Hebrew Bible goes on to portray Israel’s best kings, David and Solomon, has having an extra dose of the knowledge of good and evil, which is described as wisdom and a power of discernment (2 Sam. 14:17, 20; 1 Kings 3:9-12, 28; 4:29-31).The above understanding means that Adam and Eve’s transgression did not rise to the level of sin, since they had not yet acquired the knowledge of good and evil. They were like minors without legal capacity. In fact, their transgression was the result of human nature already at creation having the aforementioned inclination toward evil, not the cause of our sinfulness, as claimed in the doctrine of original sin.Given that evil is a form of chaos and good is a manifestation of the divinely created order of creation, the knowledge of good and evil is nothing less than the godlike knowledge of how the universe works in terms of the dynamic between chaos and order, both at the cosmic level and at the human moral level of good and evil. This understanding was likewise an insight into how the human psyche works. According to the biblical writers, in principle the knowledge of good and evil is what can (if applied) enable humans to avoid sin and further good.As shown by the snowballing of human evil leading up to Noah’s flood, however, in practice merely having this knowledge was not enough for good to prevail. Humans needed divine guidance and assistance. It was for this reason that Yahweh bestowed on the Hebrews the Law, a set of ordering principles which, if followed, would result in good prevailing, as well as the greatness of the Israelite nation. Having the knowledge of good and evil would enable humans to understand and follow the Law. This scheme is shown in Diagram 2 below, presenting the knowledge of good and evil as a type of merism, encompassing these opposites at the cosmic and human level.The Psychic Nature of the Transgression.Having the knowledge of good and evil enables humans to discern and understand both external and internal (psychic) reality, in particular pairs of opposites, symbolized by the opposites of good and evil but including others in the story such as male and female, and God and humans. Therefore, Adam and Eve’s acquisition of this knowledge constituted an enlightenment and transformation into a higher psychic level, that of full ego-consciousness. Before that, they were mired in a lower psychic state dominated by the unconscious that Erich Neumann (1954) famously called the “uroboros,” where all is one and there are no pairs of opposites (pp. 5-38). Yahweh’s warning that Adam would “die” upon eating the fruit, may well render this moment a kind of initiation scenario, with the old human dying and entering a new state of being. This transformation is what made humans responsible and accountable for their actions (especially before God), truly capable of sin or of good, and ready to act in the real world. That is when Adam and Eve exited the Garden. In psychological terms, they were not driven from the Garden but grew up and walked out on their own. As Joseph Campbell explained, “The Garden is a metaphor for the following: our minds” (2001, p. 50).Although no act of “original sin” occurred, the Eden story remains principally a story explaining human nature, in particular our psyche. Especially important is the story’s recognition of the role of chaos in the psyche, which today means the unconscious and especially the Shadow. As Jung recognized, “it is a frightening thought that man also has a shadow-side to him, consisting not just of little weaknesses and foibles, but of a positively demonic dynamism” (CW 7, para. 35). This chaos eventually came to be represented by the Devil. The author of the Eden story honestly brought out this psychic fact, and he did his best to fashion a way to deal with it. His remedy was the application of our knowledge of good and evil (an aspect of ego-consciousness) plus the Law.
What Does the Eden Story Mean for Us?In considering the relevance of the Eden story in today’s world, we must reevaluate the biblical author’s remedy and determine what our conclusions mean for us individually (spirituality, psychology), as well as socio-politically in terms of criminology, social policy, ethics and morality, education, religious doctrine (or abandonment thereof), and law. This complicated endeavor would take us far beyond the scope of this article, so I will end with just two points in this regard.
First, to the extent the biblical remedy involves conscious application of the knowledge of good and evil, this seems inevitably to involve, at least in part, ego-consciousness repressing and suppressing contents of our unconscious, which modern psychology has shown to cause still more problems.Second, historically, the biblical authors’ reliance on prophylactic laws to control human behavior has had mixed results. Further, such approach assumes that the human psyche is incapable of further change, even though it had transformed once before in the Garden. As a result, the prophylactic approach treats symptoms rather than the underlying problems, including evolved traits that once had survival value but which in many cases are now dysfunctional.
An alternative approach is to endeavor to transform the human psyche to a higher level, in which case the need for prophylactic measures and suppression and repression of the unconscious would lessen. Such is the approach, for example, being explored by Allan Combs (2009), the integral psychology movement championed by Ken Wilber (1996; 2000), and other progressive thinkers and initiatives. One means toward this end may well be spiritual practices giving a direct experience of divinity (however conceived), the type of approach condemned in the Bible but which resulted in the elevation of Adam and Eve’s consciousness.
www.depthinsights.com/Depth-Insights-scholarly-ezine/jung...

Coaching

Marc Accetta posted a photo:

Coaching


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My own web

R J Poole - The Anima Series posted a photo:

My own web

Anima Series 5
Sitting No. 138
Lismore NSW 2017

2817648641

juekmonktnecqjsjupir posted a photo:

2817648641

Photo by 97217080@N00

The photographer finds his inner Black Swan in Barcelona

Spencer Means posted a photo:

The photographer finds his inner Black Swan in Barcelona

Perseus vs. Medusa = Defensive Masquerade... Medusa’s Head as a protective weapon against the male spectator.The phallocentric society dictates that the hero inside the narrative story needs to survive (in one way or another).

bernawy hugues kossi huo posted a photo:

Perseus vs. Medusa = Defensive Masquerade... Medusa’s Head as a protective weapon against the male spectator.The phallocentric society dictates that the hero inside the narrative story needs to survive (in one way or another).

When a female appears in the role of a film director in the phallocentric male dominated film industry, she too is left with no choice but to wear the double-faced mask of Phorcys/Perseus concealing her “castration” (threat) and “non-identity” (Mulvey, 1989, pp. 14-26). This contributes to the continuation of the confrontational masquerade not only on the outer social level, but also on the inner psychological level.The Film Director (Perseus) holds the woman’s cinematic image (Medusa’s Head) in front of him, hiding behind it (hiding behind the film screen) (Pict. 3). The act of head in hand shows to others that he is the hero (Perseus rendered his name immortal by his conquest of Medusa, (Modern American Poetry)). He is the one who killed the monster, and the one who now possesses a double strength (male and female power). Taking into consideration that we live in a society where “under capitalism power and money have become commensurable qualities” (Benjamin, 1978: 114), it is of no surprise that being a film director is a desired profession (adding to this the fact of the hero’s immortality). Therefore, a lot of young people nowadays, in the era of accessible filmmaking equipment, dream of becoming a film director. The success of the established mainstream film director, among other factors, depends on how good he/she is in the roles of Phorcys and Perseus and how powerful are his Medusa’s Heads; in other words, how good he is at fetish object construction and how sadistic he is in forcing a change in it.

“The sight of Medusa’s head makes the spectator stiff with terror, turns him to stone” (Freud 1940: 2 (85)). Here Freud compares stiffening with the erection. The film director, with the possession of the Medusa’s Head, possesses the ultimate power over the male spectators, regulating and programming their moments of erotic contemplations; putting them into a dependent position. The film director controls the erotic fantasies of the male spectator.

However, if we consequently follow our comparison between the film screen and Perseus’s shield (mirror), we can state that, similar to Perseus, the audience is looking not at the actual Medusa’s Head, but at its reflection. Therefore her sight cannot be harmful for the spectator. Nevertheless, due to the fact that “the cinema unreels in an imaginary space which demands participation and identification” (Bazin 1971: 174) the spectator in the dark room begins to identify himself with the male hero. The male spectator forgets about the screen. He goes “through” it, and by identifying himself with the hero, faces the actual Medusa’s Head, experiencing the moments of erotic contemplations. That is how André Bazin describes his experience as a male film viewer: “The actor winning the woman gratifies me by proxy. His seductiveness, his good looks, his daring do not compete with my desires – they fulfill them” (Bazin 1971: 174). The film director can never obtain the role of the male spectator in the full scale, since he always remembers the process of working behind the screen (killing Medusa); he holds Medusa’s head and keeps a distance (Pict. 3), remembering to protect himself and killing his rivals. Here we can reference Bazin, who confirms that “death is the negative equivalent of sexual pleasure, which is sometimes called, not without a reason, “the little death” (Bazin 1971: 173). The identification with the hero in the narrative space is, at the end, harmful for the spectator.

Freud’s text on the subject, “Medusa’s Head” (written 1922-1923, org. publ. 1940), can be seen as a bridge between psychoanalysis and the feminist symbol. A careful study of the text reveals that Freud’s interpretation of the ancient myth is partial, concentrating on the comparison between the image of Medusa’s Head and the terrifying genitals of the mother. Freud does not mention anything about the heroic deed of Perseus, about Medusa’s death, or the fact that Medusa’s head was first used by Perseus as a protective weapon, before he presented it to Athena (Perseus used Medusa’s head to protect himself and his loved ones from male rivals.) Most importantly, he used Medusa’s head to protect his mother Danaë from king Polydectes, who wanted to marry her against her will.According to the ancient myth, Perseus beheaded Medusa by looking at her image in his mirrored shield, and then used her head as a defensive weapon (Modern American Poetry). The head of the Medusa is feminine and can be viewed as a mask, a defensive mask. Mary Ann Doane states (referencing Joan Riviere) that in the phallocentric society, the spectator of film undergoes a “masculinization”. This, in turn, affects the sexual development of the intellectual woman and forces her to wear femininity (womanliness) as a defensive mask to hide her obtained masculinity, namely Transvestism (Doane, 1982). Therefore, we are presented with a situation where the feminine defensive mask (the visual presence of a woman on the screen) in the hand of Perseus (the film director) is confronted by its counterpart –the feminine defensive mask in the hand of an intellectual woman. This confrontation brings us to a discovery of the double role of the womanliness as a powerful defensive weapon (masquerade) in the phallocentric society, that is used confrontationally by both men and women. The woman-spectator uses femininity as a defensive masquerade to conceal her masculinity, while the male film director holds the female defensive mask in front of him to protect himself (his masculinity, to protect the unconscious film form of the phallocentric society).In order to understand the relationship between the Medusa’s Head and the female spectator we need to reference Freud: “the woman is constructed differently in relation to processes of looking […] the woman has a problematic relation to the visible, to form, to structures of seeing” (Doane 1990: 47). The woman is lacking the distance between seeing an image and at the same time understanding it (Doane 1990: 47). According to Doane “the body which is so close continually reminds her of the castration (which she wants to get rid of by obtaining the penis – the symbol of power). Here we can argue, that if female spectator saw the Medusa’s Head up close (the close up of the woman’s image on the screen Pict. 1, 2) she is unconsciously considering the power it possesses. This power is coded in the enlargement of the physical proportions on the screen image. Therefore, the mask of the Medusa coincides with the face of the female spectator and female spectator becomes infused with the Medusa’s Head’s power. The fact that the male hero inside the story is seeing Medusa’s Head (experiencing stiffening = the erotic moments of contemplation), it is absolutely guaranteed that the female spectator will find a satisfaction in experiencing the hero’s admiration (in all possible fantasies she can imagine). The problem emerged (around 1970s or even earlier), when the intellectual, “masculinized” (Mulvey 1989) woman started to look at the screen in a state of “oscillation between a female position and a masculine position, invoking the metaphor of the transvestite. Given the structures of cinematic narrative, the woman who identifies with a female character must adopt a passive or masochistic position, while identification with the active hero necessarily entails an acceptance of what Laura Mulvey refers to as certain “masculinization” of spectatorship” (Doane 1990: 48).

The transvestitism of contemporary female audiences forced the male dominated film industry to refine the image of Medusa, namely to assign her more elaborated masks to confuse the female audience (in the state of confusion the woman loses her power). Today we see female images on screen in the form of giant animals (cat in Avatar, etc). And if the new elaborate masquerade confuses the female audience, the male audience has no problem learning to identify the cause of the castration threat (the lack of penis).

Another problem arises when the female spectator wears glasses. “There is always a certain excessiveness, a difficulty associated with the woman who appropriates the gaze, who insists upon looking” (Doane 1990: 50). A woman wearing glasses is wearing a reflected shield, which protects her against herself. Glasses signify the fact of seeing as opposed to being seen. The intellectual woman looks and analyzes, and in usurping the gaze she poses a threat to the entire system of representation” (Doane 1990: 50). Nevertheless with the new generation of 3D films, which force all spectators to wear glasses (Avatar) the woman is losing her distinctive powerful look.The phallocentric society dictates that the hero inside the narrative story needs to survive (in one way or another). This fact dictates that Medusa’s Head needs to be eliminated. Film directors give the hero in diegesis the power to get rid of the seductive powers of the Medusa’s Head (the spectator can indirectly do this too). As the narrative progresses, Medusa’s Head “falls in love with the main male protagonist and becomes his property, losing her outward glamorous characteristics, her generalized sexuality, her eroticism, her show-girl connotations; her eroticism is subjected to the male star alone. By means of identification with him, through participation in his power, the spectator can indirectly possess her too” (Mulvey 1989 : 21). Here we see the obvious parallel with the myth: “drops of blood fall to earth and are changed into poisonous snakes which reduce Medusa’s lethal power (Ovid, op. cit., IV. 618)” (Modern American Poetry). To this we can add that all the female characters, who are not suitable to potentially fulfill the motherhood function with the hero (in one way or another to succumb to him), are always eliminated from the film narration in the end (killed, alienated, put in the mental institutions, etc.)

It is unfortunate, but we have to admit that the function of a woman in forming the patriarchal unconscious doesn’t go beyond the symbolization of “the castration threat first and second by raising her child into the symbolic. Once this has been achieved, her meaning in the process is at end, it does not last into the world of law and language except as a memory, which oscillates between memory of maternal plentitude and memory of lack. Woman’s desire is subjected to her image of bearer of the bleeding wound, she can exist only in relation to castration and cannot transcend it [even using the masquerade]. She turns her child into the signifier of her own desire to possess a penis (the condition, she imagines, of entry into the symbolic)” (Mulvey 1989: 14).

Conclusion

“Using her decapitated head to turn his enemies to stone, he spreads death around him” (Modern American Poetry). The film directors in the roles of Phorcys/Perseus in the phallocentric society (both male or female directors) posses an ultimate destructive film power in their hands, namely the objectified woman’s image (the Gorgon Medusa’s Head). By its use they obtain the power to manipulate the unconscious of male spectators, using erotic stimulus. By assigning to Medusa’s mask new elaborative looks they try confuse the female spectator, thus eliminate her from the “battlefield”.

“Ovid, in particular, stressed the significance of the shield in which Perseus was able to see the Gorgon without being turned to stone, and which was given to him by Athena. Everything indicates that the mirror was the real weapon” (Modern American Poetry). Following our established parallel between the mirrored shield and the film screen, we can say that the cinema’s screen and what is projected on it possesses an extreme psychological power. The ultimate question is: in whose hands does this power lie? According to the myth, eventually Perseus presented Medusa’s head to Athena, who placed it on her shield, the Aegis. There might be a possibility that in the future we will be seeing the shield (film screen) in the hands of women. However, if the social rules will be based on the power of a genital’s presence (penis or vagina) it will be impossible for our society to achieve a peaceful democratic state of social development.

In order to continue the process of understanding the unconscious level of film formation and its impact on the spectator, it would be interesting to investigate not only the process of “masculinization” of the female audience, but also the “feminization” of the contemporary male audience. Further it could be beneficial to investigate the reasons why male and female spectators sometimes fail to identify with the images they see on screen.

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